Immunity – Male and Female | Science and life
Different people get sick with the same disease in different ways. Factors that affect the individual
One of the most important functions of the nervous system is the reaction to stress, including psychological stress. It manifests itself in different ways: a person may become depressed, or may become aggressive, preferring the attack to withdraw into oneself. In any case, stress suppresses immunity, and since we have sex differences in the nervous system, then the stress effect of suppressing immunity in men and women should be different. Indeed, depression harms women’s immunity more than men’s. Negative emotional stress causes an increase in the level of inflammatory proteins of cytokines, which is why women with a low threshold of anger (that is, irritable over trifles) increase the risk of developing tissue insulin resistance, which is one of the characteristic features of type 2 diabetes. In men, this issue is not well understood.
But why do differences in the nervous system affect immunity? Here we need to remember through what intermediaries the monural with prostatitis treatment regimen reviews brain, nerves can act on the immune system. First, these are neurotransmitters – substances that are involved in the transmission of impulses from one nerve cell to another. They can act not only on neurons, but also on other cells. Secondly, these are hormones. Thus, chronic stress stimulates the release of adrenal hormones – glucocorticoids, as well as prolactin and NGF (nerve growth factor), which act on the immune system, slowing wound healing, impairing the response to vaccination and reducing the anti-cancer capabilities of the immune system. Analyzing the relationship between sex and hormonal state in acute psychological stress, the researchers found that the two most important endocrine glands, the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, work differently in men and women, which are in close connection with each other. Intersexual differences in their work affect the level of the stress glucocorticoid cortisol, the secretion of which in the adrenal glands is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis: in women, the amplitude of cortisol reached its maximum low carb trenbolone buy in australia legally during social stress, and in men – during motivation, associated with problem solving. That is, the nature of stress (which in itself refers to the highest cognitive activity), refracting through different gender perceptions, reflected in different ways on the state of the endocrine system.
Talking about hormones, it is impossible to pass by sex steroids, androgens and estrogens. Everyone knows that different groups of sex hormones predominate in men and women and that in women, the activity of estrogen is subject to a periodic cycle. However, one should not think that these steroids control only the reproductive system – androgens and estrogens are in close and reciprocal connection with the nervous system, and with other hormones, and with the immune system. The effect of sex steroids on the nervous system leads to the activation of many systems that are responsible for our emotions and behavior. Thus, estradiol contributes to anxiety and depression, while testosterone is often associated with aggressive behavior. Animal studies have shown that estrogen is associated with increased sensitivity to stress and decreased cognitive function.
On the other hand, laboratory and clinical data indicate protective, neuroprotective properties of estrogens, which can, at least in part, be explained by the interaction of the endocrine and immune systems. For example, estrogen suppresses the production of inflammatory factors in brain damage and inhibits neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s syndrome and Alzheimer’s syndrome. (Androgens, like estrogens in women, exhibit neuroprotective properties in men. One of the mechanisms of this action may be the stimulation of metabolism in the central nervous system.)
The different dynamics of male and female sex steroids also contribute to sex differences. In men, the level of androgens decreases slowly with age, so that they do not have dramatic changes in the functioning of the nervous system or in the functioning of the immune system. In women, stress responses are exacerbated during menopause, when steroid levels change dramatically and hormone replacement therapy can help alleviate this “stress tolerance”. In addition atsystem.best, the immune system’s responses to stress depend on the phase of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. In general, in women of reproductive age, the amplitude of the stress response is lower than in men, but in the luteal phase (when a temporary gland, called the corpus luteum and synthesizing progesterone and a little estrogen, is destroyed in the ovaries) approaches the male. Fluctuations in the level of estrogen and progesterone during the female reproductive cycle are naturally reflected in fluctuations in the levels of immunoregulation factors. In women on the verge of menopause, estrogen causes mood swings and increased anxiety by acting through neural pathways that use serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), adrenaline, and norepinephrine as neurotransmitters.
Sex steroids can affect immunity not only through the nervous system, but also directly, acting directly on immune cells. Thus, estrogen receptors are found in many types of immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes, dendritic and NK cells. Estrogens affect innate immune responses and stimulate the synthesis of so-called adhesion molecules (thanks to which lymphocytes can gain a foothold in the lesion) and chemokines – substances that control a local immune response, such as inflammation. In general, sex steroids can be both immunostimulants and immunosuppressants, depending on the specific hormone medical buy anapolon 17 sources of buy anapolon, its concentration at a given time and the number of receptors for it. In general, it is believed that androgens, male steroid hormones, and pregnancy hormones progestins work as immunosuppressants, while estrogens are associated with an increase in the immune response, and they act not only on the immune cells themselves, but also on the service cells of the stroma (support structure) of the lymph nodes. cytokines synthesizing regulatory immune proteins.
The direct interaction of sex hormones with immunity is noticeable during menopause. During this period, the risk of bone damage due to osteopenia and osteoporosis increases, when bone mass and its mineral density decrease. On the one hand, estrogens themselves are necessary to maintain proper bone mineralization. On the other hand, inflammation, infection and autoimmune diseases are also known to be associated with systemic and local bone loss. The direct involvement of immune T cells and cytokines in the formation and functioning of osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone) and osteoblasts (cells that generate bone substance) has now been proven. Estrogen deficiency prompts T cells to increase levels of osteoclastogenic factors.
Aging of the body is reflected in the state of immunity, which manifests itself, in particular, in a decrease in the thymus (lymph gland), in which maturation, differentiation and immunological “training” of T cells occur. As a result, the cellular response is reduced not only to new pathogens, but also to those that should already be known to the immune system, which leads to a decrease in protection against infectious diseases. Although the mechanisms responsible for age-related weakening of the thymus are not fully understood, there is evidence that sex steroids are not complete. The elimination of hormones is accompanied by the rejuvenation of the old thymus with a pronounced increase in its mass and the release of T cells into buy equipoise online how to get boldenone in a circulation. The changes persist for a very long time, moreover, even a temporary decrease in steroids can significantly stimulate thymic activity and expand the activity of circulating T cells, which can be important in immunodeficiency states associated either with age or with the results of toxic treatment ( chemotherapy and radiotherapy, HIV treatment).